Trading and Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet Explained with Example in easy way for Commerce Students | CA | B.Com | M.Com | CS
Hello Guys, I am back with another video on Accountancy. In this video I am going to teach you guys how to prepare Trading Account and profit and Loss Account as well as Balance Sheet. And the best part of this video is that I am going to explain this with a difficult Example so that you guys would be able to do any kind of questions relating to Trading and Profit and Loss Account and balance Sheet. Okay so, let's start.
Before starting with the Question, here is a quick format of trading and Profit and Loss Account. It starts with the heading Trading and profit and Loss Account for the year ending dash dash dash means for whatever period we are preparing it.So, if we are preparing it for the year ended 31st March 2016, we will say Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31st March,2016. So, It is prepared in a T format, T as in English alphabets which includes Particulars Amount Particulars Amount as you can see in the slide. I still remember the time when I studied this format for the first time, I used to call it Papa P A P A Papa which is an Indian word for Father. So, this whole account is divided into two parts i.e Trading Account and Profit and Loss Account. Firstly we start with Trading Account. on the Debit side, we write Opening Stock, then To Purchases, then Wages and then Other Expenses. Okay, Always remember that we add the expression 'To' to every account written on the Debit side of the Trading account. And on the Credit side we write By Sales and By Closing Stock. On the Credit side we add ' By' to every account instead of To. Now, this is where almost our Trading Account ends. See, I said almost not completely. The most important part of Trading Account still lefts. As you guys may know that in Accounts we balance both Debit and Credit side i.e the total of Debit side should always be equal to the total of Credit side. Therefore, to balance both the Debit and Credit side of Trading Account, we use Gross profit or Gross Loss which is the main purpose of preparing Trading Account. Now, if the Credit side is more than the Debit side, we have Gross profit and if the Debit side is more than the credit side, we have gross Loss. These are the balancing figure which means that their amount will depend upon the difference between the Debit and Credit side. This is where our Trading Account ends. In't it simple? Don't worry if you guys feel it is difficult, stay with me till we solve the question and all of your doubts will vanish.
so, here is the total of Trading Account which we write inside two straight lines. Okay, now it's the turn of Profit and Loss Account. It always starts with either Gross profit or Gross Loss. It depends upon the result of the Trading Account. If the result of the Trading Account is Gross Profit, profit and Loss Account will start with Gross Profit on the Credit side and if the result is Gross Loss, profit and Loss Account will start with Gross Loss on the Debit side.
Also On the debit side of profit and Loss account we record Indirect Expenses i.e all other expenses except Direct Expenses and on the Credit side, we record Indirect Incomes. Now, comes the Totaling part. So, as I said Debit is always equal to Credit , therefore If the Credit side is more, we have Net profit and if the Debit side is more, we have Net loss.
So, if you guys want a complete explanation on Direct and Indirect Expenses and Incomes, the video link is in description.
So, with this we have studied enough of the format, now let's solve an Example with Adjustments.
Okay, so here is a Trial Balance given from which we have to prepare Trading and Profit and Loss Account as well as Balance Sheet. But before reading the question, you guys should have knowledge of Assets, Liabilities, Direct Expenses, Indirect Expenses and Indirect Incomes.
Now, if you are studying Trading and profit and Loss Account, let me assume that you already know about Assets and Liabilities because we study thm in starting. Now Direct Expenses are those which are directly related to production. Example of Direct Expenses are Wages, Carriage Inward, Freight Inward, Octroi, Royalty on Production etc. And Indirect Expenses are those Expenses which are not directly related to production. Example includes Salary, taxes, Postage, Telephone Expenses, Insurance, Printing and Stationery Expenses, Depreciation, Advertisement Expenses etc.
Now let's study the question. So, the question is the Following is the